Inf.ovh

Fish Diseases and treatment methods

It is always easier to prevent disease than to cure it. Fish get diseases usually because of our omission.

What does "prevent fish diseases" means?

But even being really cautious we may find out that our fish got a disease. Then it is very important to correctly diagnose the disease and determine its cause. The next step should be to eliminate the problem and proceed with the treatment.

First symptoms of fish disease

It is impossible to describe all the symptoms of all diseases mostly because most of the symptoms are not specific to individual disease. However, some changes can be observed on the fish skin or in the fish behaviour, which clearly indicates the problem in our aquarium. These include:

Quick diagnosis of disease

This table will help you diagnose symptoms and their possible causes. When you click disease you will be redirected to the page with more information about it. That page also includes treatment methods.

This table is divided into a few groups:

- Eyes
- Skin
- Gills
- Fins
- Excrement and anal area
- Change in appearance (bulge, thinning, contortion)
- Behaviour and abnormal swimming
SymptomsPossible cause/disease
Eyes
Bulging eyes Dropsy
Mycobacteriosis - Fish tuberculosis
Swelling of the eye Gas bubble disease
Whitening or cloudiness of the eye lens Cataracts
Inadequate water temperature
Nutrient deficiencies - not correct diet
White spots - Ich - Ick
Eyes covered with mucus Cataracts
Skin
Change body coloration - dulling of colours Inadequate water temperature
Spironucleus - dinoflagellates
Fading colours Mycobacteriosis - Fish tuberculosis
Costia - Ichthyobodo
Internal/external parasites
Microsporidiosis
Oxygen deficiency
Ichthyosporidium
Pleistophora - Neon tetra disease
Redness of the skin Costia - Ichthyobodo
Cotton-mouth - Columnaris
Lernaea
Ammonia poisoning
Sores on the skin Mycobacteriosis - Fish tuberculosis
Dropsy
Ichthyosporidium
Lernaea
Skin inflammatory condition Lernaea
Cotton-mouth - Columnaris
Jagged skin Cotton-mouth - Columnaris
Internal/external parasites
Mechanical injuries
Velvet - Oodinium
Mucus covering the skin Costia - Ichthyobodo
Velvet - Oodinium
Internal/external parasites
Gas bubble disease
Alkaline water
Acid water
Oxygen deficiency
White spot - Ich - Ick
White streaks along the spine and below the dorsal fin Pleistophora - Neon tetra disease
White stains on the skin Cotton-mouth - Columnaris
Yellowish dots with velvet-gold shine on the body Velvet - Oodinium
Small, white tumours on the skin Pleistophora - Neon tetra disease
Fluffy, cotton wool-like shreds on the skin Fungus - Saprolegnia
White-green worms(threads) hanging out from the skin Lernaea
White rush on the body and gills White spot - Ich - Ick
White, fluffy clusters around the mouth Cotton-mouth - Columnaris
Stains on the head Hexamita
Brown cysts on the skin Nematodes
Open holes on the body Mechanical injuries
Hexamita
Internal/external parasites
Darker colour of the body Hexamita
Spironucleus - Hole in the head
Pleistophora - Neon tetra disease
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Blisters on the skin Gas bubble disease
Inadequate water temperature
Protruding scales Mycobacteriosis - Fish tuberculosis
Dropsy
Ichthyosporidium
Scales loss Mycobacteriosis - Fish tuberculosis
Cotton-mouth - Columnaris
Gills
Damage of the gills Acid water
Alkaline water
Faster movements of the gill covers White spot - Ich - Ick
Velvet - Oodinium
Gas bubble disease
Alkaline water
Oxygen deficiency
Cichlid bloat
Open the gill covers Dropsy
Deformation of the gill covers Inadequate water temperature
Red gills Ammonia poisoning
White spot - Ich - Ick
Clamped gills Nutrient deficiencies - Dietary imbalances
Fins
White coating on the edges of the fins Fin rot
Clamped fins Internal/external parasites
Velvet - Oodinium
Inadequate water temperature
Frayed fins Mycobacteriosis - Fish tuberculosis
Fin rot
Velvet - Oodinium
Dropsy
Mechanical injuries
Pleistophora - Neon tetra disease
Ammonia poisoning
Internal/external parasites
Destruction of the fins Fin rot
Destruction of the caudal fin Pleistophora - Neon tetra disease
Twitching fins Acid water
Redness of the base of the fins Fin rot
Excrement and anal area
Reddening anal area Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Cichlid bloat
White, filamentous, stretching excrement Cichlid bloat
White, sticky excrement Spironucleus - Hole in the head
Filamentous, mucous excrement Nematodes
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Dropsy
Bloody feces Nematodes
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Vestigial amounts of excreted feces Constipation
White, mucous, jell like excrement Hexamita
Worms hanging from the anus Nematodes
Change in appearance (bulge, thinning, curvature)
Bloated the bell Cichlid bloat
Hexamita
Dropsy
Ichthyosporidium
Spironucleus - Hole in the head
Constipation
Gas bubble disease
Mycobacteriosis - Fish tuberculosis
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Nematodes
Thinning Microsporidiosis
Mycobacteriosis - Fish tuberculosis
Pleistophora - Neon tetra disease
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Nematodes
Ichthyosporidium
Ammonia poisoning
Internal/external parasites
Nutrient deficiencies - Dietary imbalances
Hexamita
Curvature of the spine Microsporidiosis
Pleistophora - Neon tetra disease
Mycobacteriosis - Fish tuberculosis
Nutrient deficiencies - Dietary imbalances
Curvature of the body line Dropsy
Behaviour and abnormal swimming
Loss of appetite Hexamita
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Mycobacteriosis - Fish tuberculosis
Fin rot
Ichthyosporidium
Velvet - Oodinium
White spot - Ich - Ick
Spironucleus - Hole in the head
Dropsy
Microsporidiosis
Cotton-mouth - Columnaris
Constipation
Gas bubble disease
Alkaline water
Oxygen deficiency
Inadequate water temperature
Internal/external parasites
Nutrient deficiencies - Dietary imbalances
Pleistophora - Neon tetra disease
Costia - Ichthyobodo
Cichlid bloat
Apathy Dropsy
Ichthyosporidium
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Internal/external parasites
Gas bubble disease
Acid water
Alkaline water
Mycobacteriosis - Fish tuberculosis
Inadequate water temperature
Nematodes
Nitrate/nitrite poisoning
Lernaea
Fungus - Saprolegnia
Nutrient deficiencies - Dietary imbalances
Carbon dioxide poisoning
Hiding Acid water
Hexamita
Pleistophora - Neon tetra disease
Ichthyosporidium
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Spironucleus - Hole in the head
Dropsy
Gas bubble disease
Cotton-mouth - Columnaris
Skin scraping Lernaea
White spot - Ich - Ick
Cotton-mouth - Columnaris
Internal/external parasites
Costia - Ichthyobodo
Velvet - Oodinium
Fungus - Saprolegnia
Breathing problems Costia - Ichthyobodo
Ichthyosporidium
Internal/external parasites
Ammonia poisoning
Oxygen deficiency
Carbon dioxide poisoning
Inadequate water temperature
Acid water
Cotton-mouth - Columnaris
Velvet - Oodinium
White spot - Ich - Ick
Lernaea
Carbon dioxide poisoning
Swimming under water surface Ammonia poisoning
Nitrate/nitrite poisoning
Oxygen deficiency
Gas bubble disease
Acid water
Ichthyosporidium
Inadequate water temperature
Alkaline water
Cichlid bloat
Difficulties in swimming Dropsy
Gas bubble disease
Fin rot
Nutrient deficiencies - Dietary imbalances
Microsporidiosis
Constipation
Nematodes
Swim bladder diseases
Swaying movements Fin rot
Swim bladder diseases
Ichthyosporidium
Costia - Ichthyobodo
Pleistophora - Neon tetra disease
Carbon dioxide poisoning
Hanging in the water, the tail twitches Swim bladder diseases
Mycobacteriosis - Fish tuberculosis
Swimming upside down Swim bladder diseases
Hexamita
Sudden movements of the fish Ammonia poisoning
Oxygen deficiency
Inadequate water temperature
Acid water
Jumping out of the water Acid water
Inadequate water temperature
Ammonia poisoning
Leaping swimming above the bottom Labyrinth cold
Ichthyosporidium
Being close to the heater Inadequate water temperature
Clumsy fish movements Alkaline water
Lying on the tank bottom Internal/external parasites
Slow growth of the fish Nematodes
Ammonia poisoning
Nutrient deficiencies - Dietary imbalances
Convulsions Nutrient deficiencies - Dietary imbalances
Breaking the fish of the aquarium equipment - signs of blindness Cataracts
Aggression Inadequate water temperature
Carbon dioxide poisoning

Disinfection aquarium and plants

To disinfect aquarium and equipment use formalin, potassium permanganate (1 g per litre of water) and rivanol (1-3 g per litre of water). You can also use hydrogen peroxide. To disinfect aquarium plants use potassium permanganate (1 g per 20 litres of water). Wooden decoration elements simmer for a few hours. Fish net used to catch sick fish should be constantly kept in a saturated salt solution. After disinfection remember to wash the tank and equipment in fresh tap water.